Species+
    Authoritative information on taxonomy, legislation, distribution and trade in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEA)-listed species. Species+, developed by UNEP-WCMC and the CITES Secretariat, is a website designed to assist Parties with implementing CITES, CMS and other MEAs. Species+ provides a centralised portal for accessing key information on species of global concern.
    Categories: Useful Links


    Wildlife Consumer Behaviour Change Toolkit
    Discussion forums, toolkits and resources for the Social and Behaviour Change Communications 'Community of Practice', created to support those working on changing behaviour to reduce consumer demand for illegal wildlife products. It brings together a wide range of best practice evidence, latest research findings and other resources from the field of consumer behaviour change, based on experience from the conservation sector and beyond.
    Categories: Useful Links


    Hunt Elephants to Save Them? Some Countries See No Other Choice
    Rachel Nuwer comments on the endless debates of elephant trophy hunting and yet “trophy hunting is not the issue. We should be focused on wildlife trafficking and the broader plight of elephants.”
    via www.nytimes.com
    Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Media Coverage


    Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: YouTube series
    Session recordings from Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: Evolving Perspectives on the demand for illegal wildlife products
    Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Videos & Media


    Legal Atlas
    A highly specialized, and customizable legal intelligence platform that can be used for a wide variety of activities.​ This includes easy access to global legislation on topics relating to illegal behaviour, environmental crime and wildlife regulations. It allows users to analyse and easily compare legislation between different countries.
    Categories: Useful Links


    Makers of wildlife hunting laws should consult local people
    Michael ‘t Sas-Rolfes explains why regulating wildlife hunting with legal interventions is both complicated and dynamic. Hunting is a hot topic right now, with opinions sharply divided over whether the Trump administration’s recent proposals to roll back some restrictions on trophy imports from certain countries in Africa would be a good or bad thing for wildlife conservation. To make sense of these debates, careful analysis of the impact of different types of hunting in Africa is much needed.
    via AFRICA SUSTAINABLE CONSERVATION NEWS
    Published: Nov 2017 | Categories: Blogs & Opinions


    Production timings could stem illegal wildlife laundering
    Research by Dr Dave Roberts in the School of Anthropology and Conservation has shown that understanding the growth rates of species could help flag up when an item being sold could only have come from the wild, thus identifying it as illegal.
    via https://www.kent.ac.uk/news
    Published: Nov 2017 | Categories: Media Coverage


    Are Traders and Traffickers Winning the Orchid Battle?
    Orchids are heavily exploited and traded, wanted for everything from decoration to food and medicine, but illegal collectors could be wiping out species before we even know they exist.
    via https://news.nationalgeographic.com
    Published: Nov 2017 | Categories: Media Coverage


    Does It Work for Biodiversity? Experiences and Challenges in the Evaluation of Social Marketing Campaigns.
    There is a growing realization among conservationists that human behavior is the main driver of all key threats to biodiversity and the environment. This realization has led to an escalation of the efforts to influence human behavior toward the adoption of more sustainable alternatives, more recently through the use of social marketing theory and tools. However, these initiatives have traditionally suffered from a lack of robust impact evaluation, which limits not only accountability but also a practitioner's ability to learn and improve over time.
    Diogo Veríssimo, Annalisa Bianchessi, Alejandro Arrivillaga, Fel Ceasar Cadiz, Roquelito Mancao, Kevin Green. Does It Work for Biodiversity? Experiences and Challenges in the Evaluation of Social Marketing Campaigns. Social Marketing Quarterly.
    Published: Oct 2017 | Categories: Research Articles


    Hidden in plain sight: the online face of the illegal wildlife trade
    Having attended the International Conference on Environmental Crime, University of Cardiff, and the Oxford Martin Symposium on the Illegal Wildlife Trade, Laure Joanny summarises the key debates from panellists Anita Lavorgna, Joss Wright and David Roberts, all of whom carry out research into the illicit online trade in wildlife.
    via https://biosecproject.org
    Published: Oct 2017 | Categories: Blogs & Opinions


    BBC Radio 4 Today Programme, 26th September 2017: John Simpson interviews E.J. Milner-Gulland on the Ivory Trade
    On 26th September 2017, John Simpson, CBE, BBC World Affairs Editor, interviewed Professor E.J. Milner-Gulland on the ivory trade for BBC Radio 4's Today Programme. "There is still an increasing trade coming out of Africa for ivory" reports Milner-Gulland. This interview sparked interest in the evening public debate held at St. Catherine's College, Oxford, UK, which took place later the same day: http://www.illegalwildlifetrade.net/2017symposium/debate/ The debate focused on the state of the wildlife trade leading up to the London IWT Conference in 2018 and addressed the many dimensions of the illegal wildlife trade and its consequences, including those arising from accountability, donor interests, evidence-based policy and livelihood concerns of local communities.
    Published: Sep 2017 | Categories: Media Coverage


    Assessing the extent of access and benefit sharing in the wildlife trade: lessons from horticultural orchids in Southeast Asia
    The equitable sharing of benefits from natural resources is a key target of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Trade in its native species is one way in which a country can potentially benefit from its natural resources, and even small-scale traders can now access global markets online. However, little is known about the extent of benefit sharing for many products, and the extent to which the appropriate processes and permits are being used.
    Amy Hinsley and David L. Roberts. (2017) Assessing the extent of access and benefit sharing in the wildlife trade: lessons from horticultural orchids in Southeast Asia. Environmental Conservation. Cambridge Core
    Published: Sep 2017 | Categories: Research Articles


    Attitudes to illegal behaviour and conservation in western Tanzania
    Natural resources in and around protected areas in many countries in Africa are under intense pressure as a result of illegal behaviour, such as fishing, hunting and logging. A better understanding of local people's perceptions of the nature of illegal behaviour and the relevance of conservation actions would be useful in informing conservation decisions. We gathered information on the attitudes and perceptions of communities in the vicinity of Ugalla Game Reserve in western Tanzania regarding illegal behaviour and the effectiveness of conservation practices, using household surveys, key informants, and focus groups. We found that local people use the Reserve illegally, especially for hunting (28 ± SE 6%) and logging (20 ± SE 5%). We explored behaviours that are problematic for conservation in the partially protected areas around Ugalla. Local communities reported feeling isolated, harassed and intimidated by approaches used to protect Ugalla. They were angered by the conservation of Ugalla as a trophy hunting site for foreigners, and the excessive force and beatings used by game rangers to keep them away from the Reserve. Improving local livelihoods (17%), participatory conservation (16%), and giving people land for agricultural activities (16%) were among the ways that local communities felt would reduce illegal activities. Our findings suggest the need for conservation measures to benefit local communities around Ugalla transparently and equitably. Outreach programmes would help to raise conservation awareness and attract positive attitudes towards conservation. To encourage local support for conservation, we also suggest that conservation authorities create and maintain good relations with people living near the Reserve.
    Wilfred, P., Milner-Gulland, E., & Travers, H. (2017). Attitudes to illegal behaviour and conservation in western Tanzania. Oryx, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S0030605317000862
    Published: Sep 2017 | Categories: Research Articles


    Trading Ideas: Issue 2
    Trading Ideas provides a space for everyone working on the illegal wildlife trade to share information about their conservation projects and research and connect with one another. This issue features articles on: evaluation design of behavior change interventions, CITES and plant trade, wildlife as by-catch trade on the Dark Web, trade of Moroccan reptiles, the effectiveness of celebrities in conservation marketing, consumer understanding and policy implications for the Andean Hairy Armadillo.
    Published: Aug 2017 | Download Trading Ideas: Issue 2_english (pdf)


    Evaluating the Design of Behaviour Change Interventions: A Case Study of Rhino Horn in Vietnam
    Behavioral change interventions are increasingly widely used in conservation. Several projects addressing rhino horn consumption were recently launched in Vietnam. We used key informant interviews, document analysis, and marketing theory to explore their strategies for intervention design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. We developed a framework to evaluate whether they followed best practice and identify implementation challenges. Using best practice from other fields and considering demand reduction within the wider context of wildlife, trade policy will help address these challenges.
    Olmedo, A., Sharif, V. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2017), Evaluating the Design of Behavior Change Interventions: A Case Study of Rhino Horn in Vietnam. CONSERVATION LETTERS. doi:10.1111/conl.12365
    Published: Aug 2017 | Categories: Research Articles


    Programme Briefing Aug 2017
    The Global Threat To Biodiversity From Wildlife Trade - A Major 21st Century Challenge
    E.J. Milner-Gulland (Zoology) Joss Wright (Oxford Internet Institute)
    Published: Aug 2017 | Categories: Reports
    Download Illegal Wildlife Briefing (pdf)


    The effectiveness of celebrities in conservation marketing
    Celebrities are frequently used in conservation marketing as a tool to raise awareness, gen- erate funding and effect behaviour change. The importance of evaluating effectiveness is widely recognised in both marketing and conservation but, to date, little research into the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement as a tool for conservation marketing has been published.
    Duthie E, Verıssimo D, Keane A, Knight AT (2017) The effectiveness of celebrities in conservation marketing. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0180027.
    Published: Jul 2017 |


    Bycatch and illegal wildlife trade on the dark web
    The dark web has caught the attention of the conservation community because of the surge in interest in the illegal wildlife trade.
    Roberts, D., & Hernandez-Castro, J. (2017). Bycatch and illegal wildlife trade on the dark web. Oryx, 51(3), 393-394. doi:10.1017/S0030605317000679
    Published: Jun 2017 | Categories: Research Articles


    Wildlife product stockpiles: friend or foe to endangered species?
    Amidst the current fervour for combatting illegal wildlife trade, the use of certain policy measures may be confounded by the continued existence of residual legal activities that potentially complicate both enforcement and efforts to change consumer behaviour. For this reason, many activists prefer an uncompromising approach: total prohibition of all forms of legal supply, consumptive use and trade of endangered species products, supported by simple demand reduction messaging to consumers of the ‘just say no’ variety. However, this extreme approach may be neither realistically achievable nor even desirable.
    via www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/opinion
    Published: May 2017 | Categories: Blogs & Opinions


    FilteredWeb: A framework for the automated search-based discovery of blocked URLs
    Various methods have been proposed for creating and maintaining lists of potentially filtered URLs to allow for measurement of ongoing internet censorship around the world. Whilst testing a known resource for evidence of filtering can be relatively simple, given appropriate vantage points, discovering previously unknown filtered web resources remains an open challenge. Authors present a novel framework for automating the process of discovering filtered resources through the use of adaptive queries to well-known search engines. Implementation of this framework, applied to China as a case study, shows the approach is demonstrably effective at detecting significant numbers of previously unknown filtered web pages, making a significant contribution to the ongoing detection of internet filtering as it develops.
    Darer, A, Farnan, O and Wright, J et al., (2017). FilteredWeb: A framework for the automated search-based discovery of blocked URLs. 2017 Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference (TMA). https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:6321b48a-9a84-4452-8e2b-9e0ccb59ff67
    Published: Apr 2017 | Categories: Research Articles


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