Evidence to Action Briefing Note
Tools and expertise to improve the evidence base for national and international Illegal Wildlife Trade policy already exist but are underutilised. Tapping into these resources would produce substantive benefits for wildlife conservation and associated sectors, enabling governments to better meet their obligations under the Sustainable Development Goals and international biodiversity conventions. This can be achieved through enhanced funding support for inter-sectoral research collaborations, engaging researchers in priority setting and programme design, increasing developing country research capacity and engaging researchers and community voices in policy processes. This briefing, addressed to policy makers and practitioners, is part of the 2018 Evidence to Action: Research to Address Illegal Wildlife Trade event programme, organised by five of the UK’s most active IWT research institutions, to support the London 2018 IWT Conference.
Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cugniere, L., Hinsley, A., Phelps, J., ‘t Sas-Rolfes, M., Verissimo, D. (2018) Evidence to Action: Research to address the illegal wildlife trade. Briefing note to policy-makers and practitioners.
Published: Sep 2018 | Categories: Policy Briefs
Evidence to Action_IWT18_Briefing Note

Exploring saiga horn consumption in Singapore
The Critically Endangered saiga antelope Saiga tatarica faces an uncertain future, with populations dwindling from epidemics in its range countries, and ongoing demand for its horns in the traditional Chinese medicine trade. Despite this, little is known about the consumers that drive domestic demand. Investigation into consumption prevalence and consumer demographics, knowledge and motivations has shown that awareness of conservation issues and regulations was uniformly low. Awareness raising may have an effect in reducing consumer demand in Singapore. However, given the exploratory nature of this study, it is best used to guide and inform future research underlying behavioural change interventions in a relatively understudied but important consumer group, Chinese Singaporeans.
Theng, M., Glikman, J. A., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2018. Exploring saiga horn consumption in Singapore. Oryx, p. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605317001624
Published: Mar 2018 | Categories: Journal Articles

The illegal orchid trade and its implications for conservation
When most people think of illegal wildlife trade, the first images that spring to mind are likely to be African elephants killed for their ivory, rhino horns being smuggled for medicine, or huge seizures of pangolins. But there is another huge global wildlife trade that is often overlooked, despite it involving thousands of species that are often traded illegally and unsustainably. Orchids are perhaps best known for the over one billion mass-market pot plants traded internationally each year, but there is also a large-scale commercial trade of wild orchids for food, medicine and as ornamental plants. Conservation community should focus on conducting further research on trade dynamics and the impacts of collection for trade; strengthening the legal trade of orchids whilst developing and adopting measures to reduce illegal trade; and raising the profile of orchid trade among policy makers, conservationists and the public.
via Oxford University Press blog
Published: Mar 2018 | Categories: Blogs & Opinions

Did Harry Potter create a demand for pet owls in the UK?
Much as been said in the popular media regarding a potential link between the Harry Potter movie and book series and an increase in demand for pet owls in the UK. But what does the evidence says? This explores research that has failed to find any connection between the boy wizard and owl keeping and questions how sentiments such as this can be so widely reported in the media, in the absence of any supporting evidence.
via www.forbes.com
Published: Jan 2018 | Categories: Media Coverage

Measuring the impact of an entertainment-education intervention to reduce demand for bushmeat
Using a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) framework design, an entertainment-education intervention is evaluated to ascertain changing attitudes to bushmeat consumption, with the aim of reducing demand for bushmeat trade in northern Tanzania. Analysis did not uncover any differences in outcomes between the treatment and control groups, and thus no evidence of the intervention achieving its initial goals. Authors highlight the challenges of implementing and evaluating such interventions (delivered through mass media in developing countries), as well as the importance of sharing results even when results indicate a negative or null result.
Veríssimo, D., Schmid, C., Kimario, F. F. and Eves, H. E. (2018), Measuring the impact of an entertainment-education intervention to reduce demand for bushmeat. Anim Conserv. doi:10.1111/acv.12396
Published: Jan 2018 | Categories: Journal Articles

The illegal wildlife trade: Oxford Martin’s approach to a better understanding
Aimed to inject some objective evidence into the international groundswell against the illegal wildlife trade, Nafeesa Esmail provides an account on the Oxford Martin Programme on the Illegal Wildlife Trade. Specifically, how the programme has been set up, its ambitious and a brief report with the main emerging themes from our recent annual symposium, held in September 2017.
Published: Jan 2018 | Categories: Blogs & Opinions Conference Articles

Toolkit of Engagement
This site features ideas and resources about how to best engage people in conservation and how to integrate them into conservation planning. The toolkit was developed by Audubon, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Environmental Education and Training Partnership, and TogetherGreen, along with many other colleagues.
Categories: Useful Links

Outcome Mapping
Outcome Mapping is an approach to planning, monitoring and evaluation that puts people at the centre, defines outcomes as changes in behaviour, and helps measure contribution to complex change processes. This website provides access to resources and case-studies, a directory of events and a community member forum.
Categories: Useful Links

PRISM Conservation Impact Evaluation Toolkit
PRISM is a toolkit that aims to support small/medium-sized conservation projects to effectively evaluate the outcomes and impacts of their work. The toolkit has been developed by a collaboration of several conservation NGOs with additional input from scientists and practitioners from across the conservation sector.
Categories: Useful Links

Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: Reviews from bursary delegates
As part of San Diego Zoo Global’s support at our 2017 Wildlife Trade Symposium, we supported nine delegates from developing countries through a bursary scheme. Read testimonials on how their attendance at our Symposium has since helped them on their path to addressing the illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade.
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Conference Articles

Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: Biodiversity and Security
As part of the 2017 Wildlife Trade Symposium, held from 25-27 September at the University of Oxford, the BIOSEC project team from The University of Sheffield, facilitated a knowledge exchange workshop on Biodiversity and Security. Here, Rosaleen Duffy, Hannah Dickinson and Laure Joanny review the discussions and outcomes of their session.
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Conference Articles

Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: Plenary presentations and discussions
Visual summary of plenary presentations and discussions from day 1 of Evolving Perspectives on the demand for illegal wildlife products
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Conference Articles

The wild origin dilemma
The sustainable production and trade of plants, animals, and their products, including through artificial propagation and captive breeding, is an important strategy to supply the global wildlife market, particularly when the trade in wild specimens is restricted by CITES or other wildlife trade legislation. However, these production methods can become a potential mechanism for the laundering of material illegally collected from the wild, leading to recent calls for the development of traceability methods to determine the origin of traded products.
Amy Hinsley, David L. Roberts, The wild origin dilemma, In Biological Conservation, Volume 217, 2018, Pages 203-206, ISSN 0006-3207, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.11.011.
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Journal Articles

A review of the trade in orchids and its implications for conservation
Orchids are one of the largest plant families and are commercially traded for a variety of purposes, including as ornamental plants, medicinal products and food. Much of this trade is the result of illegal harvest meaning that it is little documented and is absent from official statistics, at the same time as being of growing conservation concern.
Amy Hinsley, Hugo J de Boer, Michael F Fay, Stephan W Gale, Lauren M Gardiner, Rajasinghe S Gunasekara, Pankaj Kumar, Susanne Masters, Destario Metusala, David L Roberts, Sarina Veldman, Shan Wong, Jacob Phelps; A review of the trade in orchids and its implications for conservation, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, , box083, https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/box083
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Journal Articles

Elephant conservation debates must become more constructive
The conservation of wildlife is complex and often contested. This is particularly the case when the species concerned is large, charismatic, with monetary value, and whose presence in an area can cause major direct impacts on people's lives. Such is the case for Africa's elephants, but it is true for other species as well, including big cats, large ungulates (hoofed mammals) and wolves. Conflicts over how to manage these species are widespread and challenging to resolve.
via www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/opinion
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Blogs & Opinions

Breaking the ivory deadlock to protect elephants
The issue of whether ivory trading should be legalised to fund elephant conservation, or banned altogether, is long standing and widely debated. Both sides of the argument are so contentious that emotional investment can distort our understanding of the core issues.
via www.ox.ac.uk/news
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Media Coverage

To trade or not to trade? Breaking the ivory deadlock
The debate over whether legal trading of ivory should be allowed to fund elephant conservation, or banned altogether to stop poaching has raged for decades without an end in sight.
via www.uq.edu.au/news
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Media Coverage

Breaking the deadlock on ivory
Poaching for ivory has caused a steep decline in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations over the past decade. This crisis has fueled a contentious global debate over which ivory policy would best protect elephants: banning all ivory trade or enabling regulated trade to incentivize and fund elephant conservation. The deep-seated deadlock on ivory policy consumes valuable resources and creates an antagonistic environment among elephant conservationists. Successful solutions must begin by recognizing the different values that influence stakeholder cognitive frameworks of how actions lead to outcomes (“mental models”), and therefore their diverging positions on ivory trade.
Duan Biggs, Matthew H. Holden, Alex Braczkowski, Carly N. Cook, E. J. Milner-Gulland, Jacob Phelps, Robert J. Scholes, Robert J. Smith, Fiona M. Underwood, Vanessa M. Adams, James Allan, Henry Brink, Rosie Cooney, Yufang Gao, Jon Hutton, Eve Macdonald-Madden, Martine Maron, Kent H. Redford, William J. Sutherland and Hugh P. Possingham. Breaking the deadlock on ivory. Science 358 (6369), 1378-1381. DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5215
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Journal Articles

Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: iTunes series
Session recordings from Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: Evolving Perspectives on the demand for illegal wildlife products
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Videos & Media

Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: Podcast series
Session recordings from Wildlife Trade Symposium 2017: Evolving Perspectives on the demand for illegal wildlife products
Published: Dec 2017 | Categories: Videos & Media

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